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Assessment of cardiovascular and renal functions during treatment with Desmodium adscendens therapy

Published on: 9th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873221073

Desmodium adscendens is a rain forest medicinal herb used in managing quite a number of medical conditions. Its efficacy in the treatment of several diseases has made it a first line herb for doctors, especially in managing all forms of spasm. It is however common knowledge that some of these medicinal herbs impact severely on the normal functioning of some vital organs of the body during their administration. The present study was carried out to assess the renal and cardiovascular performance in subjects undergoing treatment with Desmodium adscendens with a view to advising against its indiscriminate use. The parameters used for the assessment of renal functions were serum creatinine and urea concentrations and their clearance. Also, changes in electrolyte concentration of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride concentration were used to assess cardiovascular performance. The histology of the kidney and heart tissues was also done to determine if the extract has impact on the cyto-architecture of the organs. Twenty-four (24) wistar rats were used for the experiment. The rats were grouped randomly into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 served as control, and the rats in the group were given normal rat feeds and water. Group 2 served as low dose group, and rats in this group were administered with low dose of extract 300 mg/kg. Group 3 served as medium group, and rats in this group were treated with medium dose of extract, 450 mg/kg. Group 4 served as high dose group, and rats in this group were treated with high dose of extract 600 mg/kg. The extract was administered for 28 days. Result showed that the extract did not impact negatively on the normal function of the renal and cardiovascular system of the treated groups, rather it enhanced their performances. It can therefore be concluded that the extract is beneficial to renal and cardiovascular functions if used within the treatment dosage. 
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Sildenafil citrate in healthy and diseased hearts

Published on: 23rd April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9026743533

Sildenafil citrate is one of the frontline drugs used to manage erectile dysfunction (ED). Chemically, it is described as 1-[[3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H –pyrazolo [4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)-4 ethoxyphenyl] sulfonyl]-4-methylpiperazine citrate (C22H30N6O4 S). It is a highly selective inhibitor of cyclic guanine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type-5. There had been heightened concerns following reports that sildenafil citrate may increase the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly fatal arrhythmias, in patients with cardiovascular disease. So the cardiac electrophysiological effects of sildenafil citrate have been investigated extensively in both animal and clinical studies. This article ties up the various outcomes of the investigations with a view to guiding physicians and patients that use sildenafil citrate to manage erectile dysfunction, especially as it concerns its effect on their cardiovascular function in health and in disease. Sildenafil citrate could impact negatively on ailing hearts, but on a healthy heart, there may not be any such impact, rather, it improves on heart performance as it lowers the blood pressure.
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Impact of amitriptyline on learning and memory

Published on: 14th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9026719804

Background/aim: Amitriptyline belongs to class of known as tricycline antidepresant (TCA) that is being used to treat anxiety and depressive states. It may help improve mood and feelings of well-being, relieve anxiety and tension, help to improve sleep and increase energy level. The study investigated the effect of amitriptyline on learning and memory using eighteen (18) healthy Swiss mice of both sexes weighing 16 – 25 g. Method: The animals were divided into three (3) groups consisting of six (6) animals each. Group 1 served as the control group, Group 2 was administered with amitriptyline at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 3 mls of distilled water, and used to test for learning, while Group three was also given similar administration like Group 2, but used to test for memory. All the animals were tested for learning and memory performance using Novel object recognition task and Morris water maze test. Results: The results obtained from the Novel object recognition task showed that there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total object approach in acquisition trial of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the acquisition trial of the control group. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in retention trial of amitriptyline group when compared to retention trial in the control group. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total duration exploring objects in acquisition trial of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the acquisition trial of the control group. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total duration exploring objects in retention trial of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the retention trial of the control group. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the index of habituation of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the control group. The index of discrimination showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in amitriptyline treated group when compared to the control group and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in amitriptyline group when compared to the control group. In the Morris water maze test, Day 1 – 3 were for acquisition training, day 4 – 6 reversal training, day 7 the probe trial day and day 8 the visible platform day. During acquisition training in the Morris water maze test, there was no significant difference in Swim latencies in day 1 and 2. However in day 3, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in swim latency of group compared to control group and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in swim latency of amitriptyline treated group compared to the control group. During reversal training in day 1, 2 and 3, there was no significant difference in swim latency among the three groups. Results for the retention quadrant in the probe trials showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in amitriptyline group when compared to the control group. Conclusion: Results suggest that amitriptyline impairs learning and memory functions.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat