Review Article

Betty Neuman System Model: A Concept Analysis

Adnan Yaqoob*, Rafat Jan and Salma Rattani and Santosh Kumar

Published: 04 August, 2023 | Volume 7 - Issue 1 | Pages: 011-015

Introduction: Nursing theories are critical as they drive nursing education, practice, and research. Neuman Systems Model (NSM) considers a person a complete system with integrated psychological, physiological, spiritual, social, and developmental components. Nurses give their patients physical, emotional, and psychological assistance and are subjected to mental and physical pressure due to these responsibilities, impacting their health, psychological well-being, and interpersonal relationships. This paper aims to perform a concept analysis of stressors proposed in NSM about lines of defense and the level of preventive interventions that can affect a person’s well-being. Further, this paper discusses knowledge generation through NSM’s applicability to preventing exhaustion and burnout among nurses. 
Methodology: This theoretical attempt is carried out using the theory analysis approach suggested by Walker and Avant (2019).
Discussion: Nursing is a career that requires a great deal of dedication and personal engagement. Nurses are subjected to recurrent stresses due to technological advances and rising demands. Burnout occurs when nurses get discouraged and have less compassion for the patients due to recurrent burdens. Stress and burnout are two of the most common reasons for nurses to quit hospitals. The NSM is concerned with stresses that may affect a person’s health and well-being (prediction). Nurses assist patients at the most vulnerable and challenging times, such as surgical procedures, traumas and personal and physical losses.
Conclusion: The NSM enables the investigation of preventative and protective treatments. Because of the model’s flexibility, it may be used in a wide range of nursing situations. Administrative, hospitals, clinics, and other nurses can benefit from this paradigm. Evaluating the many distinct elements contributing to burnout is also feasible. The model’s client factors of physiological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual characteristics are used to achieve this. Viewing the individual as an open system that responds to environmental stimuli encourages the existence of stressors that might lead to burnout.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001036 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Application of NSM; NSM Concept Analysis; Walker & Avant; Knowledge Generation


  1. Smith MC, Parker ME. Nursing theories & nursing practice (Fourth edition.). Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Company. 2015.
  2. Petiprin A. Systems Theory. 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2019. http://www.nursing- org/theories-and-models/neuman-systems-model.php
  3. Gonzalo A. Betty Neuman. 2011. Retrieved May 16, 2019. https://nursingtheories. weebly .com/betty-neuman.html
  4. Reed KS. Betty Neuman: The Neuman systems model. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications. 1993.
  5. Meleis AI. Theoretical nursing: Development and progress (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott. 2012.
  6. Walker LO, Avant KC. Strategies for theory construction in nursing. 6th ed. New York (US): Pearson. 2019.
  7. Neuman B, Fawcett J.The Neuman systems model (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
  8. Tierney MJ, Lavelle M. An investigation into modification of personality hardiness in staff nurses. J Nurs Staff Dev. 1997 Jul-Aug;13(4):212-7. PMID: 9287629.
  9. Oehler JM, Davidson MG, Starr LE, Lee DA. Burnout, job stress, anxiety, and perceived social support in neonatal nurses. Heart Lung. 1991 Sep;20(5 Pt 1):500-5. PMID: 1894530.
  10. Drucker PF. The new productivity challenge. Harv Bus Rev. 1991 Nov-Dec;69(6):69-9. PMID: 10114929.
  11. Kobasa SC. Stressful life events, personality, and health: an inquiry into hardiness. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1979 Jan;37(1):1-11. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.37.1.1. PMID: 458548.
  12. Collins MA. The relation of work stress, hardiness, and burnout among full-time hospital staff nurses. J Nurs Staff Dev. 1996 Mar-Apr;12(2):81-5. PMID: 8715623.
  13. Tartasky DS. Hardiness: conceptual and methodological issues. Image J Nurs Sch. 1993 Fall;25(3):225-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.1993.tb00786.x. PMID: 8225356.
  14. Boyle A, Grap MJ, Younger J, Thornby D. Personality hardiness, ways of coping, social support and burnout in critical care nurses. J Adv Nurs. 1991 Jul;16(7):850-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.1991.tb01767.x. PMID: 1918650.
  15. Sortet JP, Banks SR. Hardiness, job stress, and health in nurses. Hosp Top. 1996 Spring;74(2):28-33. doi: 10.1080/00185868.1996.11736054. PMID: 10158721.
  16. Stechmiller JK, Yarandi HN. Predictors of burnout in critical care nurses. Heart Lung. 1993 Nov-Dec;22(6):534-41. PMID: 8288457.
  17. Fawcett J. Analysis and evaluation of nursing theories. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. 1993.
  18. Pajnkihar M, McKenna HP, Štiglic G, Vrbnjak D. Fit for Practice: Analysis and Evaluation of Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Nurs Sci Q. 2017 Jul;30(3):243-252. doi: 10.1177/0894318417708409. PMID: 28899271.
  19. Sutton J, Austin Z. Qualitative Research: Data Collection, Analysis, and Management. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2015 May-Jun;68(3):226-31. doi: 10.4212/cjhp.v68i3.1456. PMID: 26157184; PMCID: PMC4485510.
  20. Reeves S, Kuper A, Hodges BD. Qualitative research methodologies: ethnography. BMJ. 2008 Aug 7;337:a1020. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1020. PMID: 18687725.
  21. Kawulich B. Forum: Qualitative Social Research. Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method. 2005; 6(2).
  22. McElroy AM. Burnout--a review of the literature with application to cancer nursing. Cancer Nurs. 1982 Jun;5(3):211-7. PMID: 6919458.
  23. Simoni PS, Paterson JJ. Hardiness, coping, and burnout in the nursing workplace. J Prof Nurs. 1997 May-Jun;13(3):178-85. doi: 10.1016/s8755-7223(97)80069-5. PMID: 9167407.


Similar Articles

  • Betty Neuman System Model: A Concept Analysis
    Adnan Yaqoob*, Rafat Jan and Salma Rattani and Santosh Kumar Adnan Yaqoob*, Rafat Jan, Salma Rattani and Santosh Kumar. Betty Neuman System Model: A Concept Analysis. . 2023 doi: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001036; 7: 011-015

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?