Research Article

Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding management of extravasation of chemotherapeutic drugs

Pooja Prakash, Ayush Chandra*, Malathi Kotha, Santosh Kumar Das, Barsha Prakash, Avinash Chandra, Gyaljin Sherpa and Sudikshya Acharya

Published: 13 September, 2022 | Volume 6 - Issue 1 | Pages: 018-024

Background: More than 1 million intravenous chemotherapy infusions are given worldwide each day which leads to extravasation. Health professionals must know the drugs that cause tissue injury and take the necessary measures to prevent extravasation.
Objectives: The study aimed to assess the knowledge regarding the management of extravasation of chemotherapeutic drugs before and after the implementation of a structured teaching program among staff nurses.
Method: The pre-experimental group pre-test and post-test designs were adopted for the study. The convenience sampling technique was used to obtain 30 staff nurses of Ramaiah Medical College Hospital, India. Both Pre-test and Post-test were performed using the same structured knowledge questionnaire followed by 45 minutes of the structured teaching program. Data were processed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: More than half of the subjects were female (66.7%) and 36.7% of the subject had more than 10 years of professional experience. Most of the subjects (70%) had inadequate knowledge during the pretest. The mean knowledge score was 15.33 ± 4.003 and 24.67 ± 5.384 in pre-test and post-test respectively. There was a significant difference in pre-test and post-test knowledge scores regarding the management of extravasation of chemotherapeutic drugs. 
Conclusion: The Study concluded that the structured teaching program was significantly effective in improving the knowledge regarding the management of extravasation of chemotherapeutic drugs among nurses.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001032 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Chemotherapeutic drugs; Chemotherapy; Effectiveness; Extravasation; Knowledge; Structured teaching programme


  1. WHO Media centre Cancer. 2017. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/.
  2. Bhushan K. Daily Excelsior.Com, Jammu and Kashmir. 2017. http://www.dailyexcelsior.com/cancer-scenario-india/.
  3. Lewis, Dirkesen, Heitkemper, Bucher: Lewis’s Medical-surgical Nursing Assessment and Management of clinical problems.2nd South Asia edition. Reed Elsevier India Private Limited; 2014; 270-271.
  4. American Cancer Society. Cancer Fact and Figures. 2017; 23. https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/annual-cancer-facts-and-figures/2017/cancer-facts-and-figures-2017.pdf
  5. United States cancer statistics: Highlights from 2017 incidence. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/uscs/about/data-briefs/no8-USCS-highlights-2016-incidence.htm.
  6. Adval EU, Aydinoglu N. Extravasation of vesicant/Non vesicant drugs and evidence based management. Int.J.CaringSci. 2012; 5(2):191-202. https://www.proquest.com/docview/1114166788
  7. Kreidieh FY, Moukadem HA, El Saghir NS. Overview, prevention and management of chemotherapy extravasation. World J Clin Oncol. 2016 Feb 10;7(1):87-97. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v7.i1.87. PMID: 26862492; PMCID: PMC4734939.
  8. Al-Benna S, O’Boyle C, Holley J. Extravasation Injuries in adults. ISRN Dermatol. 2013; 2013:856541.doi: 1155/2013/856541 [PMC]
  9. Kim JT, Park JY, Lee HJ, Cheon YJ. Guidelines for the management of extravasation. J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2020;17:21. doi: 10.3352/jeehp.2020.17.21. Epub 2020 Jul 16. PMID: 32668826; PMCID: PMC7431942.
  10. Cassagnol M, McBride A. Management of Chemotherapy Extravasations. US Pharm, 2009; 34(9)(Oncology suppl.):3-11. https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/management-of-chemotherapy-extravasations.
  11. Biffi R, Pozzi S, Agazzi A, Pace U, Floridi A, Cenciarelli S, Peveri V, Cocquio A, Andreoni B, Martinelli G. Use of totally implantable central venous access ports for high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: results of a monocentre series of 376 patients. Ann Oncol. 2004 Feb;15(2):296-300. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdh049. PMID: 14760125.
  12. Froiland K. Extravasation injuries: implications for WOC nursing. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007 May-Jun;34(3):299-302. doi: 10.1097/01.WON.0000270826.22189.6b. PMID: 17505251.
  13. Rose RE, Felix R, Crawford SA, Venugopal R, Wharfe G, Arscott G. Extravasation Injuries. West India Med J. 2008;57(1):40-7. PMID: 19565937. https://europepmc.org/article/med/19565937.
  14. Schrijvers DL. Extravasation: a dreaded complication of chemotherapy. Ann Oncol. 2003;14 Suppl 3:iii26-30. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdg744. PMID: 12821535.
  15. Khan N, Khowaja KZA, Ali TS. Assessment of knowledge, skill and attitude of oncology nurses in chemotherapy administration in tertiary hospital Pakistan. Open J. Nurs. 2012; 2:97-103. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojn.2012.22015.
  16. Camelo SHH, Silva VLS, Laus AM, Chaves LDP. Professional Profile of Nurses working in Intensive Care Units of Teaching Hospital. Cienc y Enferm. 2013; 18(3): 51-62. doi: http://dx.doi. org/10.4067/S0717-95532013000300006.
  17. Chingakham B.D. Extravasation-Prevention and Management. IJAR. 2016; 2(10);532-34. http://www.allresearchjournal.com/archieves/2016/vol2issue10/PartH/2-10-33-624.pdf.
  18. Oliveira G, Andres L, Santos C, Aparecida LP. Knowledge of the Nursing Team on the prevention and management of extravasation of chemotherapy drugs, Brazil. JNUOL 1981-8963. doi: https://doi.org/10.5205/1981-8963-v11i12a15191p4789-4797-2017.
  19. Babu B, Ealias J. Effectiveness of planed teaching on knowledge regarding prevention and management of thrombophlebitis in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy among staff nurses. Rajasthan, India. IOSR -JNHS. 2016;5(5):21-24. doi: 10.9790/1959-0505032124.
  20. Gibson F, Shipway L, Aldiss S, Hawkins J, King W, Parr M, Ridout D, Verity R, Taylor RM. Exploring the work of nurses who administer chemotherapy to children and young people. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2013 Feb;17(1):59-69. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2012.01.006. Epub 2012 Mar 28. PMID: 22464655.


Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?