Abstract

Mini Review

Stage and symptoms of bipolar disorders

Gudisa Bereda*

Published: 06 April, 2022 | Volume 6 - Issue 1 | Pages: 007-010

Bipolar disorder (formerly called manic-depressive illness or manic depression) is a mental disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, concentration, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. During mood swings, there may be features of psychosis (delusions and hallucinations) that are mood-congruent. Although psychotic symptoms are seen only in a minority of patients, they explain the early terminology of manic–depressive psychosis. Stage 1a is defined as mild or non-specific symptoms of mood disorder and intervened as formal mental health literacy; family psychoeducation; substance abuse reduction; cognitive behavioral therapy. Euphoric means the experience of pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness. Certain natural rewards and social activities, such as aerobic exercise, laughter, listening to or making music, and dancing, can induce a state of euphoria. Racing thoughts are consistent, persistent, often intrusive thoughts that come in rapid succession. There is a direct link between depression and anxiety and racing thoughts. Whereas jumping from topic to topic as in the flight of ideas can be observed by others, ascertainment of racing thoughts requires asking the child whether his or her thoughts seem to be going too fast.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001030 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

Keywords:

Bipolar disorders; Stage; Symptoms

References

  1. Brickman HM, Fristad MA. Psychosocial Treatments for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2022. 18: 20.1–20.37.
  2. Lee H, Han D, Rhee SJ, Kim J, Lee Y, et al. Alterations in blood proteins in the prodromal stage of bipolar II disorders. Sci Rep. 2022; 12: 3174. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35210508/
  3. Göteson A, Isgren A, Sparding T, Holmén-Larsson J, Jakobsson J, et al. A serum proteomic study of two case-control cohorts identifies novel biomarkers for bipolar disorder. Translational Psychiatry. 2022: 12: 55.
  4. Ching CRK, Hibar DP, Gurholt TP, Nunes A, Thomopoulos SI, et al. What we learn about bipolar disorder from large-scale neuroimaging: Findings and future directions from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group. Hum Brain Mapp. 2022; 43: 56–82. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32725849/
  5. Post RM, Grunze H. The Challenges of Children with Bipolar Disorder. Medicina. 2021; 57: 601. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230664/
  6. Duffy A, Goodday S, Keown-Stoneman C, Grof P. The Emergent Course of Bipolar Disorder: Observations Over Two Decades from the Canadian High-Risk Offspring Cohort. Am J Psychiatry. 2019; 176: 720–729. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30525908/
  7. Hafeman DM, Rooks B, Merranko J, Liao F, Gill MK, et al. Lithium Versus Other Mood-Stabilizing Medications in a Longitudinal Study of Youth Diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder. J Am Acad Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry. 2020; 59: 1146–1155. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31369795/
  8. Findling RL, McNamara NK, Pavuluri M, Frazier JA, Rynn M, et al. Lithium for the Maintenance Treatment of Bipolar I Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Discontinuation Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019; 58: 287–296.e284. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30738555/
  9. Velosa J, Delgado A, Finger E, Berk M, Kapczinski F, et al. Risk of dementia in bipolar disorder and the interplay of lithium: A systematic review and meta-analyses. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2020; 141: 510–521. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31954065/
  10. Anmella G, Fico G, Lotfaliany M, Hidalgo-Mazzei D, Soto-Angona Ó, et al. Risk of cancer in bipolar disorder and the potential role of lithium: International collaborative systematic review and meta-analyses. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2021; 126: 529–541. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33831461/
  11. Raison CL, Siu C, Pikalov A, Tocco M, Loebel A. C-reactive protein and response to lurasidone treatment in children and adolescents with bipolar I depression: Results from a placebo-controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2020; 84: 269–274. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31857217/
  12. Post RM, Goldstein BI, Birmaher B, Findling RL, Frey BN, et al. Toward prevention of bipolar disorder in at-risk children: Potential strategies ahead of the data. J Affect Disord. 2020; 272: 508–520. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32553395/
  13. Wang G, Wu L, Su H, Feng X, Shi M, et al. Association of urinary matrix metalloproteinase 7 levels with incident renal flare in lupus nephritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2021; 73: 265–275. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32892475/
  14. Fu H, Zhou D, Zhu H, Liao J, Lin L, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 protects against acute kidney injury by priming renal tubules for survival and regeneration. Kidney Int. 2019; 95: 1167–1180. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30878215/
  15. Chen S, Jiang H, Hou Z, Yue Y, Zhang Y, et al. Higher serum VGF protein levels discriminate bipolar depression from major depressive disorder. J Neurosci Res. 2019; 97: 597–606. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30575991/
  16. Rhee SJ, Han D, Lee Y, Kim H, Lee J, et al. Comparison of serum protein profiles between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. BMC Psychiatry. 2020; 20: 145. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32245436/
  17. Jeppesen P, Wolf RT, Nielsen SM, Christensen R, Plessen KJ, et al. Effectiveness of Transdiagnostic Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy Compared with Management as Usual for Youth with Common Mental Health Problems: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021; 78: 1–12. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758821/
  18. Smirnova L, Seregin A, Boksha I, Dmitrieva E, Simutkin G, et al. The difference in serum proteomes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. BMC Genomics. 2019; 20: 535–535. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31291891/
  19. Pascual-Sánchez A, Jenaro C, Montes-Rodríguez JM. Quality of life in euthymic bipolar patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2019; 255: 105–115. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31150940/
  20. Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Pedersen BK, Poulsen HE, Ekstrøm CT, et al. A multisystem composite biomarker as a preliminary diagnostic test in bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2019; 139: 227–236. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30383306/
  21. Brandon M, Greenwell BCB. Variable importance plots—an introduction to the vip package. R J. 2020; 12: 343–366.
  22. Wiener CD, Moreira FP, Portela LV, Strogulski NR, Lara DR, et al. Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 in mood disorders: a population-based study. Psychiatry Res. 2019; 273: 685–689. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31207853/
  23. Barbosa IG, Ferreira RA, Rocha NP, Mol GC, da Mata Chiaccjio Leite F, et al. Predictors of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder: The role of educational degree and inflammatory markers. J Psychiatr Res. 2018; 106: 31–37. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30261412/
  24. Mørch RH, Dieset I, Færden A, Reponen EJ, Hope S, et al. Inflammatory markers are altered in severe mental disorders independent of comorbid cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Psychol Med. 2019; 49: 1749–1757. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30688187/
  25. Poletti S, Vai B, Mazza MG, Zanardi R, Lorenzi C, et al. A peripheral inflammatory signature discriminates bipolar from unipolar depression: a machine learning approach. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2021; 105: 110136. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33045321/
  26. Sahin B, Inanli I, Calıskan AM, Uysal S. Chitinase-3-like protein 1 levels in bipolar disorder. Saudi Med J. 2019; 40: 26–32. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30617377/
  27. McIntyre RS. Is obesity changing the phenotype of bipolar disorder from predominately euphoric toward mixed presentations? Bipolar Disord. 2018; 20: 685–686. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30412345/
  28. Burdick KE, Millett CE, Bonnín CDM, Bowie CR, Carvalho AF, et al. The International Consortium Investigating Neurocognition in Bipolar Disorder (ICONIC-BD). Bipolar Disord. 2019; 21: 6–10. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30720913/
  29. Altshuler LL, Sugar CA, McElroy SL, Calimlim B, Gitlin M, et al. Switch Rates During Acute Treatment for Bipolar II Depression With Lithium, Sertraline, or the Two Combined: A Randomized Double-Blind Comparison. Am J Psychiatry. 2017; 174: 266–276. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28135846/

Figures:

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More