Abstract

Mini Review

Depression as a civilization-deformed adaptation and defence mechanism

Bohdan Wasilewski*, Olha Yourtsenyuk and Eugene Egan

Published: 02 March, 2020 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 008-011

Depression is currently one of the main barriers to further civilizational development. Despite intensive efforts, it is a growing health, social and economic problem. We still lack clarity regarding the ethology of depression and treatment is still mainly symptomatic. The authors postulate that depression has similarities with anxiety and from an evolutionary perspective is an archaic defence mechanism. Formerly, through the agency of complex psychological, biological and social mechanisms, healing was facilitated in conditions of an intense, short-term nature. Adverse civilizational and environmental changes have caused pathological changes in both the mechanism of depression and corresponding defence mechanisms such as the induction of an anxiety state. Related to depression is the mechanism of thanatosis, concerning chronic biological and psychosocial dysfunctions. It is a mechanism for activating self-eliminating processes to free the community from the burden of a dysfunctional individual.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001013 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

Keywords:

Depression; Thanatosis; Civilizational breakthrough; Biotope; Defence mechanisms; Civilizational transformation

References

  1. Wasilewski BW. Depression and anxiety symptoms as integrative part of menopausal syndrome – how far anti-depressive treatment should be integrative part of the therapy. J Psychosomatic Res. 2004; 56: 670.
  2. Wasilewski B. Psychosomatic medicine in Poland, In: Hoyle Leigh (Ed.): Global Psychosomatic Medicine and Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry: Theory, Research, Education, and Practice, Springer Nature Switzerland. 2019; 345-364.
  3. Jiménez-Fernández S, Gurpegui M, Díaz-Atienza F, Pérez-Costillas L, Gerstenberg M, et al. Oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in patients with major depressive disorder compared to healthy controls before and after antidepressant treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015; 76: 1658-1667. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26579881
  4. Wasilewski BW. Psychopathological Problems in Somatic Diseases. Depression vs. a Medical model of Illness. 14th European Symposium of Somatotherapy and Psychosomatic Education. 2004; 46-47.
  5. Wasilewski B. How to differentiate among diagnostic psychosomatic dosorders, depression, borderline personality disorders and normal health? Psychologische Medizin. 2010; 21: 57.
  6. Wasilewski B. Psychosomatic functioning of individuals in evolutionary perspective. J Psychosomatic Res. 2014; 76: 519.
  7. Wasilewski B. Psychosomatic functioning of individuals in evolutionary perspective, new understanding of depression. Annual Meeting of the European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine. 2014.
  8. Laciny A, Zettel H, Kopchinskiy A, Pretzer C, Pal A, et al. Colobosis explodens sp. n., model species for studies on exploding ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with biological notes and first illustrations of males of the Colobopsis cylindrica group. Zookeys. 2018; 751: 1-40. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29706783
  9. Weisberger M. Exploding Ants Kill Foes, and Themselves, with a Blast of Toxic Goo. LiveScience. 2018.
  10. Wasilewski B, Egan E. The Psychosomatic functioning of individuals from an evolutionary perspective, new understandings of depression. 2018.
  11. Wasilewski B, Egan E. Depression and Thanatosis - an evolutionary perspective. Morressier. 2019.
  12. Wasilewski B. Archipelag opieki zdrowotnej W. Esencja człowieczeństwa, Prawda ludzka a cywilizacja. H. Romanowska-Łakomy (Red.), Eneteia, Wyd. Psychologii i Kultury. 2010; 37-45.
  13. Wasilewski B. Psychosomatic functioning of individuals in evolutionary perspective, new understanding of depression. Psychologische Med. 2014; 25.
  14. Barnosky A, Matzke N, Tomiya S, Wogan GO, Swartz B, et al. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature. 2011; 471: 51–57. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21368823
  15. Brooke J. The Insect Apocalypse Is Here. NY Times Magazine. 2018.
  16. Wasilewski B. Psychosomatics – how it should be understood nowadays. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. 2011; 3: 41–48.
  17. Nettle D. Evolutionary origins of depression: a review and reformulation. J Affect Disord. 2004; 81: 91–102. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15306134
  18. Nesse RM. Is depression an adaptation? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000; 57: 14-20. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10632228
  19. Varga S. Evolutionary psychiatry and depression: testing two hypotheses. Med Health Care Philos. 2012; 15: 41-52. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21221814
  20. Wasilewski B. Symbolized Thinking as the Background of Toxic Memories, In: M. Linden, K. Rutkowski (Ed.): Hurting Memories and Beneficial Forgetting. in life span development, posttraumatic disorders, and social conflict, Elsevier Insights. 2013; 93-102.
  21. Wasilewski B. Depression accompanying somatic illnesses-parallel illness or adaptive mechanism? In: XXVII European Conference on Psychosomatics Research (ECPR) Advances in Liaison Psychiatry and Psychosomatics in Europe. 2008; 70-71.
  22. Wasilewski BW. Health care archipelago. HEKSIS. 2011; 1-2.
  23. Wasilewski BW. Discussion on the Position of Alternative Medicine in the 21st Century. J Tradit Med Clin Natur. 2018; 7: 258.
  24. Editorial: Global depression statistics. Bio Med Central, Science Daily. 2011.
  25. Rogers RS, Simpson SJ. Thanatosis. Curr Biol. 2014; 24: 1031–1033. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25517363

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More